Literature review forward osmosis.
- Forward Osmosis Forward osmosis FO is a natural phenomenon where a difference in osmotic pressure drives the solvent from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration across a selectively permeable membrane [ 21 ].
- Vapours formed during boiling condense on the tubes carrying the input saline water.
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Gomez, R. Lower feed water salinity requires less power consumption and dosing of antiscale chemicals.
Forward osmosis technology will potentially reduce brine discharges due to high recoveries associated with the technology, thus improving environmental impact of desalination technologies. The purpose of this paper is to present a sustainable technology for desalination.
Only a small percentage of the heated water is converted into steam, depending upon the pressure maintained at the next stage.
Forward Osmosis in India: Status and Comparison with Other Desalination Technologies
Thiel, J. Multistage Flash Multistage flash MSF starts with saline feed water being passed through a series of tubes which preheat the water.
The heated water is then passed through a vessel, called the stage, with pressure lower than that of the brine heater, which results in flashing of the saline water.
Ophir and A. Cerci, Y. Affiliations 1.
The feed water, after being preheated in the final condenser, is fed in equal proportions to the various vessels.
Energy consumption depends on the salt content of the feed water. Additionally, though FO membranes suffer from fouling which other techniques besides membrane techniques do not, the advantages of FO outweigh its disadvantages.
Comparison of different desalination techniques.
Sepa CF-FO Forward Osmosis Animated Demo
The key part of this paper is the comparison of FO with all of the other prevalent, as well as emerging, techniques in India. The remaining water is then introduced to a subsequent stage, which has a lower pressure. This process continues until the saline water is cooled down and discharged [ 18 ].
Vapours formed during boiling condense on the tubes carrying the input saline water.
It can be seen that FO requires less energy per m3 of water than the other thermal and membrane techniques. Anion selective membranes allow the passage application letter hospital sample anions but block cations, whereas cation selective membranes allow the passage of cations but block anions.
FO relies on the osmotic pressure difference across the membrane to extract clean water from the feed, however the FO step is still mostly perceived as a "pre-treatment" process. Nanofilters have also shown early promise city vs countryside essay there is still time before its theoretical knowledge can be efficiently applied to desalination. The capital cost includes the purchase cost of major equipment, auxiliary equipment, land, construction, management overheads, and contingency costs.