Research paper dengue fever. Dengue virus: A global human threat: Review of literature
Distance in kilometers from Rio Branco Dk: Therefore, the centrality of a node can be measured by the combination of its connectivity and that of its neighbors.
From structural transportation network, we computed the distance in degrees from Rio Branco D to a given node i as the unweighted shortest path distance from Rio Branco to that municipality. A large-scale outbreak of dengue fever occurred in involving several districts of West Bengal.
From the weighted adjacency matrix W, the eigenvector centrality Ew i of each node i is given by the ith entry of the eigenvector corresponding to the largest eigenvalue of matrix W. As, during epidemic and nonepidemic years, dengue infections are mostly seen in postmonsoon season, hence preventive measures should be in full swing at the very onset of the monsoons.
Vaughn, S. Den3 outbreaks were also previously reported in Kolkata in [ 13 ] and in [ 3 ]. Den2 serotype was not found in samples collected during the early part of the outbreak. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
After morphological identification, a well grown individual of each species was starved for 12 hours and introduced into a glass tank containing 1L of pond water with larvae 4th instar of Aedes aegypti. India witnessed widespread dengue fever outbreak in the year The network over the country map on the right panel represents the flow of airline passengers to Acre from each state.
Konar, and G.
Dengue Research Papers - brokenarrow.me
The identified serotypes were Den1 in 3 samples two female patients, 16 and 46 years of age, and one male patient of age 13 yearsDen3 in 2 samples two male patients of age 18 and 15 yearsand Den4 in one sample from an year female patient.
Viral replication, primarily in macrophages[ 11 ] Direct skin infection by the virus[ 12 ] Immunological and chemical-mediated mechanism induced by host—viral interaction. Therefore, the higher the number of travelers in a given edge, the shorter the distance between them. Among the 24 dengue NS1 antigen-negative cases, 6 cases showed the presence of research paper dengue fever IgM antibodies on subsequent followup.
Abstract Ieee phd thesis format is an acute viral illness caused by RNA virus of the family Flaviviridae and spread by Aedes mosquitoes. Rio Branco is the municipality with the strongest communication with the rest of the country. Out of cases, 4 deaths research paper dengue fever with a case fatality rate of 1.
Abstract Background. These findings warrant to undertake a study with a bigger sample size and the serological findings corelated with dengue PCR and dengue IgG antibody test. Sarkar, D. It clearly reveals that the highest number of cases belonged to the age group 11—30 yr and males clearly outnumbered the females.
Detection and Serotypic Characterization of Dengue Virus by PCR The detection and serotypic characterization of dengue virus was performed using previously published primers by Lanciotti et al. Oral manifestations are rare in dengue infection; however, some cases may have oral features as the only presenting manifestation.
A study conducted by Eong  in Singapore supports that proportion of males was higher than females in their study. We developed a methodology to combine the data regarding direct flights and passengers in transit to estimate the total number of passengers that travel between all possible airport pairs see S1 Appendix.
Study reports from Asian countries such as Cambodia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Singapore and Philippines  and India  reveal the high preponderance of males in dengue fever and pointing out the fact that it may be due to the outdoor work habit of men compared to females.
A Comprehensive Study on the Dengue Fever Outbreak in Kolkata, India
A period of 3 weeks was chosen because it represents one generation of dengue transmission. Further, significant variations in the larval predation were found among different maturity stages 10—20; ; and 35—45 mm in body length of Ana.
Thrombocytopenia may be related to alterations in megakaryocytopoiesis, manifested by infection of human hematopoietic cells and compromised progenitor cell growth. Results A comprehensive picture of dengue epidemic that occurred in West Bengal state in is given in Table 1. Sarkar et al.
Assessing how vulnerability to dengue importation changed from to at the Acrean municipalities in response to changes in the transportation network InAcre witnessed its first dengue epidemic, in Rio Branco. But a South American study conducted by Kaplan et al. Kalayanarooj et al. Bhagat et al. A year-old male patient affected with Den3 serotype and an puppy farm case study female patient affected with Den4 serotype did not turn up for followup.
The identified serotypes were Den1 in 3 samples, Den3 in 2 samples, and Den4 in one sample. Since the first epidemic in Kolkata duringmany places in India have been experiencing dengue infection [ 6 — 13 ].
Another study conducted by Adriana et al. Table 3: There are several measures of node centrality, the literature being rich with proposals for both weighted and unweighted networks [ 36 ]. Mastino and J. Supportive care with analgesics, hydration with fluid replacement, and sufficient bed rest forms the preferred management strategy.
First, we investigate if more central cities were invaded earlier than peripheral ones, where centrality is defined as a property of the transportation network defined below. To describe the Acrean transportation system, data regarding the availability and status of roads, waterways, and airways was obtained from the Ministry of Transport http: Tamil Nadu reported the highest number of cases in the country being 9, followed by West Bengal which reported 6, cases.
First, we investigated the available records of Ae.
Following the last large-scale dengue outbreak in [ 14 ], recently there was a major outbreak in involving several districts of West Bengal. All the patients were from Kolkata district.
Here, we measured vulnerability as the expected probability of dengue importation from other Brazilian states into Acre, by air transportation. Secondly, we assessed whether cities closer to Rio Branco were invaded before distant ones.
To take into account the uncertainty regarding the length of the infectious period, the results shown correspond to the average over simulations of this process using a gamma distribution with mean of 4.
A Comprehensive Study on the 2012 Dengue Fever Outbreak in Kolkata, India
This centrality measure is usually more relevant in large, sparse networks, where those nodes act as bridges between different regions of the network. Receptivity of the Acrean cities to dengue transmission Receptivity depends on the presence, abundance and vectorial capacity of the local population of Ae. The effective reproductive number Rt was calculated weekly for each city, from to Although dengue virus infections are usually self-limiting, dengue infection has come up as a public health challenge in the tropical and subtropical nations.
The prevailing serotypes in this outbreak were Den1, Den3, and Den4. Monthly distribution of the positive dengue cases in, and Therefore, the higher the number of passengers in the shortest paths from a node, the higher its closeness centrality.
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